Fighting Parkinson’s, and your knowingly positive ripple effect

I announced 2024 as the year of knowing. Positive knowing was instrumental in my recovery and in my continuing to have a joyful life. Today, I want to explain the ripple effect of what you have been creating as you have been growing the affirmations from believing to knowing.

Suppose you are sitting on a small platform in the middle of a pond. It is a very calm day with no breeze and the water is still like glass. If you drop a single pebble in the pond, it will create a ripple that eventually will die down and the water will go back to looking like glass again.

Let’s say that the pebble is the grouping of the positive knowing affirmations that you have been copying and pasting at the bottom of the blog posts every week since the beginning of the year.

Here is what saying the affirmation would look like in the pond:

I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!! 

I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!! 

I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!! 

And then, the affirmations ripples are gone and the pond is back to smooth-looking glass.

The problem with this one-time saying the affirmations and the ripple going away quickly is that the mind then bombards you with, “You are getting worse, ” “You do not have brain cells and dopamine,” “Look how bad your symptoms are,” and the negative, self-judging, self-criticizing list goes on and on.

Let’s fix this. Find a quiet spot and repeat the knowing affirmations for five minutes per day at one time. It is like you are dropping a pebble right behind the first pebble, and then another pebble and then another pebble and then another pebble, so the ripple effect that you create is big and strong, and it lasts a long time.

It looks like this:

I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!! 

As you continue to say the affirmations, the ripples continue to flow and they grow. Look how big these ripples got in the few seconds it takes to have read them four times above. Imagine how big the ripples will get with a continuous flow of five minutes reciting them.

The ripples of positive knowing and positive feelings create waves that keep going and going and going and keep growing and growing and growing. 

Ultimately, this creates a beautifully insulated place for you in the middle — everything flowing out from you is positive knowing, and it keeps going and growing — and you are nicely insulated from the negative thoughts bombardment. The negative thoughts cannot get near you because your ripples are too large and too consistent.

And there you are in the middle…calm, peaceful, grateful, joyful you. All it took was consistent positive knowing to create a positive insulated barrier around you where negativity simply cannot get in.

As you continue to do this, your mind will realize that your heart is taking back the power over your emotions. Your mind will try to convince you that your recovery is not taking place because your mind is afraid to lose its seat of power over your emotions. Do not be fooled by your mind’s illusions. Trust your heart’s authenticity.

Let go of your mind. Have faith in your heart. Keep the positive knowing ripple effect flowing.

Please post a comment below by copying and pasting these words:

I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

Each and every one of you is winning and you are worth it!!!

All my best,

Howard

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
This entry was posted in Fighting Parkinson's Drug Free. Bookmark the permalink.

52 Responses to Fighting Parkinson’s, and your knowingly positive ripple effect

  1. Tatiana L says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  2. Russell says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  3. Anne says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  4. LBR says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!
    I AM. WORTH. IT!!l

  5. Ira says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  6. Lynn O says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  7. Carol A. says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  8. Anil says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  9. Constantinos says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  10. Aletta W says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  11. Gary E says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  12. Gary W says:

    I know my brain cells are alive! My dopamine reservoir is full. I am believing in God for my full recovery amen

  13. Tom D says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  14. Weng says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  15. Tery and Werni says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  16. John S in NJ says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  17. Thando M says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  18. Roni says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  19. Karen S says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

    Thank you Howard Shifke, I do your recipe each day knowing I’m winning.👩‍⚖️🫶🏼

  20. Ray says:

    Thank you Howard. You know how much I need this, xx
    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  21. Gail in Tennessee says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  22. Rainer in Germany says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

    Ich weiß, dass meine Gehirnzellen heil sind.
    Ich weiß, dass mein Dopaminspeicher voll ist.
    Ich weiß, dass ich das Recipe for Recovery praktiziere, und ich weiß, dass meine Genesung von Parkinson auf dem besten Wege ist.
    Ich weiß, dass ich irgendwann in der Zukunft, vielleicht sogar schon bald, vollständig von Parkinson genesen sein werde.
    Ich weiß, dass ich außergewöhnlich bin.
    Ich weiß, dass ich Genesung bin.
    ICH WEISS, DASS ICH GEWINNE! UND ICH WEISS, DASS ICH ES ABSOLUT WERT BIN ZU GENESEN, VON PARKINSON UND IN MEINEM LEBEN!!!

    Thank you, Howard!

  23. Tim in Colorado says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  24. Alejandro G says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  25. Jonathan in Tidewater Virginia says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  26. Maria B says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!
    Thank you Howard!!!

  27. Craig D says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  28. Wyatt W says:

    “Ripple in still water, where there is no pebble tossed, no wind to blow.
    Reach out your hand if you’re cup be empty, if your cup is full, may it be again
    let it be known there is a fountain that was not made by the hands of man”

    -from the song “Ripple” written by Robert Hunter for the Grateful Dead ❤️

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  29. Chris M says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  30. Kate says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  31. Soo P says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  32. Peter H says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  33. Santiago P says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  34. Jeanne R says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  35. Kevin C says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  36. Lisa H says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!

    Thank you, Howard!!! The Recipe brings me so much happiness and I am recovering too! Bless you all! 🙏

  37. Cicily says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  38. Sakina K says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  39. Ulve says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  40. Robert H says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  41. Margaret says:

    Thank you Howard I couldn’t copy and paste as I was on my phone due to travel
    I have copied and pasted it indelibly in my heart ♥️ where it will grow and grow
    Thank you so much 😊

  42. John H says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I AM WORTH IT!!!

  43. Andrea says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!
    Amen

  44. Richard S says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  45. Rosalie says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!! 🌟💜

  46. Rabindar says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  47. SN says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  48. Gloria says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  49. Michael H says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

  50. Ola says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!
    Thank you Howard I am grateful!

  51. Karen S says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I’m doing the Recipe and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that someday in the future, I will be. having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I LNOW I AM WORTH IT !
    Each and everyone of us is winning and we are worth it!!!
    Thank you. Howard Shifke. My friends and husband are starting to see the changes for the good.

  52. May says:

    I know my brain cells are alive. I know my dopamine reservoir is full. I know I am doing the Recipe, and I know my recovery from Parkinson’s is happening. I know that some day in the future, I will be having a full recovery from Parkinson’s. I know I am extraordinary. I know I am recovery. I KNOW I AM WINNING! AND, I KNOW I AM WORTH IT!!!

Comments are closed.